Hi Everybody! I have a problem with a math question. I typed out the said question (in bold at the beginning) and the solution underneath. I don't understand what is being done at the two bullet points - why we are doing what we are doing. So, if somebody would be so kind as to explain, I would be very grateful - it's been bugging me for two days (I asked for help on some other forum, but sadly, I only got one reply...explaining how to do the first part.)

For a fixed , let

, is an element of

For is not equal to , divided by .

Prove that is , then ,

whereas, if , then .

WORK:

...this isequation 1

Fromequation 1

- If ,

which implies...

which implies...

- If , then and

which implies...

which implies...