Use these properties:

For real numbers :

I'll do the first one for you:

I assume you are looking for ? Note that variables written in a different case (e.g. and ) are usually considered distinct.

For this one, just solve for :

and continue from there.

Factor the expression first: what is the greatest common factor of 162 and 2? The answer should be fairly obvious: it's 2. So we have

Now notice that the second factor is a difference of squares, because . You can factor it using the identity

.

Then you should end up with another difference of squares which you can further factor.

Once the expression is completely factored, it should be easy to see which of those choices is not a factor.