Digitwise, the number is abcde2

the new number is 2abcde

so 3 times the new number equals the old number

3e must have a ones digit of 2. So it could be equal to 2, 12, 22, 32, etc

But we know it is a digit, so it is less than 10, and since 3*9 = 27, it must equal 2, 12, or 22. And since 12 is the only one of those which is a multiple of 3, it must be 12. then 12/3=4. so e =4

we can't have a ones digit of 12, so we carry the one.

now 3d+1 returns a ones digit of 4. so options are 4, 14, and 24 (because d cannot be greater than 9, so 3d+1 cannot be greater than 28) subtracting one from each of these we get 3d = 3, 13, or 23. and clearly 3 is the only option returning an integer. so 3d=3. thus d = 1

now we know that 3c has a ones digit of 1. so 3c equals 1, 11, or 21 (again, must be less than 27, because c<9). 21 is the only multiple of 3. so 3c = 21. therefore c = 7

21 is not a digit, so we carry the 2.

now we have that 3b+2 must have a ones digit of 7. so 7, 17, or 27. Subtracting 2 we get that 3b must equal 5, 15, or 25. 15 is the only multiple of 3. so 3b=15. therefore b = 5

17 is not a digit so carry the one.

Now we get that 3a+1 has a ones digit of 5. so 5, 15, or 25. Subtracting one we get that 3a must be 4, 14, or 24. 24 is the only multiple of 3. so 3a=24. therefore a = 8

25 is not a digit, so carry the 2.

Now looking back at the original, equation we see that this becomes

Therefore the number is 857142, and the new number is 285714.