Hi;

I need to transform the function f(x) = 2x + 3, four units up now I know how to do it just add 4 to the 3 but...

my issue is a transformed function has the expression f(x) = a(dx -h) + k so...

how do we know that 3 is vertical rather than horizontal I can only assume its because the brackets are missing in the original function ?

Thanks.