1.) The comes from:

More simply, we see that the denominator in the first term needs the factor to be equal to the denominator in the second term.

2.) You have to multiply both the numerator and the denominator by the same thing so that in effect you are multiplying the term by 1, and so its value remains unchanged.

3.) What do you mean by normal fraction?

4.) No, your method was not correct.

5.) FOIL is an acronym used as a mnemonic device for multiplying binomials. If you have:

you can find the product from the sum of:

F: product of "first" terms or

O: product of "outer" terms or

I: product of "inner" terms or

L: product of "last" terms or

Hence:

6.) To distribute essentially means:

The term on the outside is "distributed" to the terms on the inside.