The second factor is 1.
Think about, if you divide two numbers, and your answer is always the same as your first number, you must be dividing by one
That's an oddly worded question though.
You have a number, say 16. You take the quotient of 16 and 4: 16 divided by 4 is 4. The quotient is equal to the first factor, which is 4.
I would say that in order for this to be true then the second factor is the same as the first. (In other words, the larger number is a perfect square.)
What exactly are you using as your definition of factor? Based on your example, I would say 16 is the first factor, 4 is the second factor, and 4 is the quotient. Using this definition, the quotient wouldn't be equal to the first factor, but it would be equal to the second factor.
I think I might have the wrong meaning for factor though, I hope I didn't JasonProb in the wrong direction