because i lack the skills to type up what i need to to explain this properly to you, i won't even attempt it. it would just be a pain for the both of us. see if the following links help. there are two main ways to do this, by long division or by synthetic division. i use long division (never learned synthetic), but you can use whichever you please of course

see Long Division and/or Synthetic Division

the remainder part is kind of easy though, you can just use the remainder theorem

basically it says that if you're dividing a polynomial f(x) by something like (x - a), then the remainder is given by f(a). of course, it's more general than that. but that's the gist of it