The basic rules are

<-- This holds when the exponents are negative as well.

So let's look at these problems with these rules in mind.

1.

We know that

So the expression is

What does the rule tell you what to do with this?

2. One further rule: Square roots represent a 1/2 power. So . Note that

(Last step by the "power to the power" rule.) What can you do using this?

-Dan