Simplifying Complex Algebraic Fractions

Need Help figuring out the following:

Simplying Complex Algebraic Fractions:

The book equates this to this:

It says in the book that this step reduces the numerator and denominator to single fractions. That's fine but doesn't say how it's done. I can see the top fraction you can get by:

But i'm still unsure of that and don't know about the bottom fraction. I would normally look to multiply like

then cancel out the x and y's leaving:

Any suggestions advice would be great.

Cheers

BIOS