First, in questions like this, change the scale that you've been given so that both bits are in the same units. So, for instance, in #1 the scale you're given is:inches represents feetSo that's:
inches represents inchesThat's a ratio of:
Noting that is one-quarter, multiply both numbers in the ratio by to get rid of decimals. That's:This means that inches (or feet, or whatever) on the plan represents inches (feet, whatever) on the ground.
Secondly, learn how to make things bigger and smaller using what are called multiplying factors. It's very simple. If you have a ratiothen the multiplying factors are:andThat's all. There aren't any more.
So with the ratiothe multiplying factors areandAnd then all you need to know is, to make a number bigger, use the multiplying factor that has the bigger number on top; to make a number smaller use the one that has the smaller number on top.
OK. Now I'll complete question #1, and see if you can do the others. As we've said, the multiplying factors are:andOn the plan, the hallway is inches. Obviously the real hallway is much bigger than this. So we multiply inches by . And the answer is:Now have a go at the others. Let us know if you get stuck.inches (to the nearest inch)