what rules have been used in these steps?
In addition to the usual "rules of logarithms", you need the definition of logarithm.
If , then . Now take the logarithm, base 5, of that: and use the "law of logarithms" to get [tex]xlog_5(3)= 1[tex] and so [tex]x= \frac{1}{log_5(3)}.
For the last take log of both sides of : and divide both sides of the equation by log(3).
The "2" is just there to confuse things. Once you have those three different forms of "x" equal, multiply each by 2.