1. The sum of 5 and x divided by the difference of x and 8 and the result is 5.

Remember "sum" means add and "difference" means subtract. So we have

(x + 5)/(x - 8) = 5

=> x + 5 = 5(x - 8) ...........................I multiplied both sides by (x - 8)

=> x + 5 = 5x - 40 ............................I expanded the brackets

=> 40 + 5 = 5x - x ............................I put all the x's on one side and all the constants on the other

=> 45 = 4x

=> x = 45/4

2. The sum of a number and 7 is equal to twice the difference of the number and 1.

Note: sum = add, difference means subtract, twice means 2 times

Let our number be x. We have:

x + 7 = 2(x - 1)

=> x + 7 = 2x - 2

=> 7 + 2 = 2x - x

=> x = 9

3. Six more than six times a number is 24.

Let the number be x. We have

6x + 6 = 24

=> 6x = 24 - 6

=> 6x = 18

=> x = 18/6

=> x = 3

If there's anything you don't understand, say so