If species are different what would you expect to see in the measurements? And if the species were the same could the mean of what you are measuring be different? (for example if male Cod have a length of 20 cm and female cod have a length of 16 cm they are the same species but they are expected to have differences within the species). Would each of the twelve measurements be different or can some be the same? If eleven were different and one was the same are they considered different species?
For when you measure things as either 1, 2 or 3:
Can different species have the same values 1, 2 and 3?
Can the same species have different values of 1, 2 and 3?
You can't perform numerical analysis on bone shape comparing means and such because you randomly chose Convex = 1, Concave = 2, Straight =3. More fundamentally, concave is not twice convex. But you can do some other types of analysis on data like this.