2. Introduction to Statistics. (4) Students who have taken 2X, 5, 20, 21, 21X, or 25 will receive no credit for 2. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Population and variables. Standard measures of location, spread and association. Normal approximation. Regression. Probability and sampling. Binomial distribution. Interval estimation. Some standard significance tests. (F,SP)

20. Introduction to Probability and Statistics. (4) Students who have taken 2, 2X, 5, 21, 21X, or 25 will receive no credit for 20. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisites: One semester of calculus.For students with mathematical background who wish to acquire basic concepts. Relative frequencies, discrete probability, random variables, expectation. Testing hypotheses. Estimation. Illustrations from various fields. (F,SP)

21. Introductory Probability and Statistics for Business. (4) Students who have taken 2, 2X, 5, 20, 21X or 25 will receive no credit for 21. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Prerequisites: One semester of calculus.Descriptive statistics, probability models and related concepts, sample surveys, estimates, confidence intervals, tests of significance, controlled experiments vs. observational studies, correlation and regression. (F,SP)

25. Introduction to Probability and Statistics for Engineers. (3) Students who have taken 2, 2X, 5, 20, or 21 will receive no credit for 25. Three hours of lecture and one hour of laboratory per week. Prerequisites: A year of calculus.Emphasis on concepts and applications. Conditional probability. Independence. Expectation. Standard discrete and continuous distributions. Regression and correlation. Point and interval estimation. Illustrations from engineering.