Will heat always flow from an object having more energy to one having less energy?

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- August 1st 2006, 07:09 PMCeliawill heat always.....
Will heat always flow from an object having more energy to one having less energy?

- August 1st 2006, 08:14 PMDepthangel1Quote:

Originally Posted by**Celia**

hope that helps - August 1st 2006, 08:18 PMCaptainBlackQuote:

Originally Posted by**Celia**

avoid complications) from an object at higher temperature to one at lower

temperature.

The temperature is a monotonic increasing function (usually) of the average kinetic energy

of the constituent molecules of the objects.

RonL - August 2nd 2006, 05:05 AMtopsquarkQuote:

Originally Posted by**Celia**

*spontaneously*flow from an object with higher energy to one having less energy. Not quite the same thing.

The point is that if we are doing work on the system we can*make*heat flow from a cold object to a hot object. This is more or less the operation of a refrigerator. (Remember by doing work on the system we are increasing the entropy. If the change in entropy due to work is large enough to compensate for the decrease in entropy represented by shifting energy in the "wrong" direction then we can do it.)

-Dan - August 2nd 2006, 05:48 AMCaptainBlackQuote:

Originally Posted by**topsquark**

RonL - August 2nd 2006, 08:55 AMThePerfectHackerQuote:

Originally Posted by**topsquark**

- August 2nd 2006, 10:15 AMtopsquarkQuote:

Originally Posted by**CaptainBlack**

-Dan - August 2nd 2006, 10:23 AMtopsquarkQuote:

Originally Posted by**ThePerfectHacker**

To explain my original answer in a bit more detail:

My inspiration here is the Clausius statement (which is equivalent to the Kelvin statement, which is the typical one introduced to students) of the Second Law:

"There exists no thermodynamic transformation whose*sole*effect is to extract a quantity of heat from a colder reservoir and deliver it to a hotter reservoir."

From here we can introduce the concept of entropy and a restricted statement of the Second law is that the entropy of an isolated system must increase until the system reaches equilibrium. We can still use the concept of entropy in open systems and then we reach the conclusion that heat can be transferred from a cold body to a hot body only when the entropy of the system is sufficiently increased by the process.

(The neat thing is that such a transferrence can happen "spontaneously" if we use Statistical Mechanics. The restriction is that there has to be a nearby massive source of increasing entropy...say, for example, the Sun. It won't happen often, mind you, but it can happen.)

-Dan