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Need help :( I dun understand

Hi guys,

Pls refer to the attachment.

I dun understand the following,

a) For the **Damping Force**, R_{1}, why is it ''i'' but not ''-i''?

b) For the **Damping Force**, R_{2}, why is it ''-i'' but not ''i''?

b) For the **Spring Force**, H, why is it ''i'' and not ''-i''?

c) Lastly, for **Spring Force**, H, why is it -k(x - l_{o})i?

Please explain to me in simple english, i asked my lecturer but i still don't understand :(

Rgds,

WeiJing

Re: Need help :( I dun understand

The "damping force" is proportional to the velocity and always opposes it. The crucial point is NOT that R1 is "i" or "-i" but that it is "-x' i". It is horizontal, so "i" and it is opposite to the velocity, x', so -x' i. Similarly, R2 is opposite to the speed relative to position "B" which is x'- y'. "H" is the spring force. If the spring is compressed, that is if x is less than $\displaystyle l_0$, the force tends to "uncompress" and if the spring is stretched, that is if x is larger than [tex]l_0[tex] the force tends to "unstretch". In either case it is **opposite** to $\displaystyle x- l_0$ so proportional to $\displaystyle -(x- l_0)= l_0- x$