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Math Help - Groups etc

  1. #1
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    Groups etc

    Can't seem to get these Practice Exam Questions, Please Help!


    Question 13.
    (1) Suppose f : G -> H is a homomorphism, and a is an element G has order n. Show that the
    order of f(a) must divide n.
    (2) Let G be any finite group. Find all homomorphisms f :G->Z.
    (3) Prove that (R \ {0}, ) is not isomorphic to (R, +).

    Question 17
    (1) Find the order of A = (−1 −1 ) in GL2(R).
    ( 1 0 )

    (2) Find the order of (2, 8,−1) in (Z/9Z) Z/28Z (Z \ {0}). Justify your answer.

    Question 21

    (1) Define
    f : R \ {0} -> R\ {0} by f(x) = x2 (the group operation is multiplication).
    Prove that f is a homomorphism and give the kernel. Is f an isomorphism?
    (2) Prove that {2k | k 2 Z} is a subgroup of (R \ {0}, ).

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  2. #2
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    Quote Originally Posted by asw-88 View Post
    Question 13.
    (1) Suppose f : G -> H is a homomorphism, and a is an element G has order n. Show that the
    order of f(a) must divide n.
    (2) Let G be any finite group. Find all homomorphisms f :G->Z.
    (3) Prove that (R \ {0}, ) is not isomorphic to (R, +).
    Let a^k = e where k is the order of a. Then \phi (a^k) = \phi(e) = e' by homomorphisms it means (\phi (a))^k = e'. This means the order of \phi(a) must divide k (because if n is the order and if (\phi(a))^m = e' then n|m by properties of element orders).

    (2) Let G be any finite group. Find all homomorphisms f :G->Z.
    By above exercise if a\in G and a has finite order (which it does for the group is finite) it must mean \phi(a) has finite order. But the only element in (\mathbb{Z},+) which has finite order is 0. Thus the homomorphism is the trivial one, i.e. \phi (a) = 0 for all a\in G.

    (3) Prove that (R \ {0}, ) is not isomorphic to (R, +)
    If (\mathbb{R}^{\text{x}},\cdot) = (\mathbb{R}, +) then they both would have the same number of finite order elements. Note, \mathbb{R}^{\text{x}} has two elements while \mathbb{R} has only one.
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  3. #3
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    Quote Originally Posted by asw-88 View Post
    Question 17
    (1) Find the order of A = (−1 −1 ) in GL2(R).
    ( 1 0 )
    You need to find the smallest positive integer k such that A=\left( \begin{array}{cc}-1&-1\\1&0 \end{array} \right)^k = \text{I} = \left(\begin{array}{cc}1&0\\0&1\end{array} \right).

    (2) Find the order of (2, 8,−1) in (Z/9Z) Z/28Z (Z \ {0}). Justify your answer.
    The order of [8]_{28} in \mathbb{Z}_{28} is infinite. Check your problem again.
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