Hi again overlords.

Looking for some clarification regarding this question. I know how to diagonalise a standard 2x2 matrix just following the process, however I'm having a problem with understanding the formula as provided by the solution to this question. Clearly, to obtain their formula they're just multiplying matrices. The thing confusing me a little is the 2^n+1 step, which I have highlighted. I can see they are just multiplying the two left most matrices, but I don't understand why this input is not 4^n. Furthermore, how is the input provided (2^n+1) even equivalent to 4^n? if you sub in some value for n greater than 1, then 4^n > 2^n+1.

Thanks in advance.