If the polynomial p(x) is separable or characteristic of F is 0, then it can be shown directly like this.

If E is the splitting field of p(x) in F[x], then E is the Galois extension of F. Thus |Gal(E/F)| = [E:F]. Since Gal(E/F) is the subgroup of S_n (link), [E:F] should be a divisor of n! by Lagrange's theorem.