Recall that eigen values and eigen vectors are "unchanged" under linear transformations. so the matrix resulting from applying a linear transformation on a finite demensional matrix will have the same eigenvalues and eigenvectors as the first matrix.
now, if we have an eigenvalue = 0, then det(I*lambda - A) = 0, this means that detA = 0, which means that the matrix is not invertible, since for a matrix A to be invertible, we must have detA not= 0
so that should get you started. sorry i can't help more, i was lost for most of that class