Let's see some work for the first one.

How much do you know about ? A (moderately) common fact is that has only one subgroup of order four (namely ). But, it is fairly easy to prove that since is the only subgroup of order four and conjugation by any element of that subgroup (i.e. ) is another subgroup of order four that must be invariant under conjugation. Thus, . So, the canonical homomorphism is given by . This is a surjective homomorphism and