you don't need R to be Euclidean. the claim is true in any domain because in every domain all non-zero elements have the same additive order, which is the charateristic of the domain.

for the second question just note that a group homomorphism is completely determined by where is any element of whose order is a divisor of 12. so we must have

but has no element of order 4, 6 or 12 and it has 20 elements of order 3 and 15 elements of order 2. so there are 36 group homomorphisms from to