"Past year papers" for what courses? It seems strange that you would be looking at "past year papers" without knowing the area of math that they involve.

These look to me like basic problems in "multi-variable Calculus", though introductory- they don't involve, yet, any Calculus.

(a) We are given a point A(1, 1, 0) and the line

l : (x − 1)/2= y =(2 − z)/3

(i) Find a vector, v, parallel to l.[/quote]

Notice that you could find parametric equations for this line by setting each of these values equal to parameter t: (x- 1)/2= t so x= 1+ 2t. y= t. (2-z)/3= t so 2- z= 3t and z= 2- 3t. That could also be written as a vector equation: (x, y, z)= (1+2t, t, 2- 3t)= (1, 0, 2)+ t(2, 1, -3).

The point of that is to show that (2, 1, -3), formed from the denominators of the original equation, is a vector pointing in the same direction as the line. Notice that you could find parametric equations for this line by setting each of these values equal to parameter t: (x- 1)/2= t so x= 1+ 2t. y= t. (2-z)/3= t so 2- z= 3t and z= 2- 3t. That could also be written as a vector equation: (x, y, z)= (1+2t, t, 2- 3t)= (1, 0, 2)+ t(2, 1, -3).

The point of that is to show that the vector (2, 1, -3) points in the direction of the line.

The equation of a plane containing point and having(ii) Find the cartesian equation of the plane that contains A and l.normalvector (U, V, W) is . The vector you already have, (2, 1, -3) isinthis plane, not normal (perpendicular) to it. You need to construct that normal vector. But you also know that (1, 0, 2) (taking t=0 in the equation of the line) is a point on the line and so in the plane and that A(1, 1, 0) is another point in the plane. The vector from (1, 0, 2) to (1, 1, 0) is (0, 1, -2).

Take the cross product of those two vectors to get the normal vector and use either of those points as .

This is easy: the area of a parallelogram is the length of the cross product of the two vectors.(b) Two vectors are given by a = (0, 1,−1) and b = (1,−1, 0). Determine the area of the parallelogram with edges a and b.

Two see that, recall that the area of a parallelogram is "hw" where w is the "width", the length of one side, and h is the "height", measured perpendicular to that side. Dropping a line from the end of u perpendicular to v gives a right triangle having the length of u, |u|, as hypotenuse. If the angle between u and v is then so . With , the area of the parallelogram is , precisely the length of the cross product of u and v.