.#1 a) If ex = x for some elements e,x belong to S, we say e is a left identity for x; similarly, if xe = x we say e is a right identity for x. Prove that an element is a left identity for one element of S if and only if it is a left identity for every element of S Let S be a non-empty set with a binary operation which is associative and both left and right transitive

b) Prove that S has a unique identity element

c) Deduce that S is a group under the given binary operation

#2.Prove that n|φ(a^n-1) for every integer a≥2 and any positive integer n